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Computer won't boot normally - multiple BSOD errors

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Yes, the Ring temp; that should be the one, though I'd advise watching the core temps and package temp as well, just to be sure.  When your system is idle, depending on the ambient temp in the room, it should range anywhere from around 40C to 70C; much above that, and it is very likely that your system will overheat under load.  Under load, you want it anywhere from the 60sC up to around 90C if possible (it can get up to around 99C before the CPU will throttle, but it's best for your hardware to stay below that as much as possible).

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By the way, have you tried simply removing and reseating your RAM?  Sometimes that can resolve memory issues if any of the pins on either DIMM is not making proper contact.  You should also test with each stick individually using the overclocked timings to see if it is stable that way, as it could be one of the memory modules or one of the RAM slots that has gone bad.

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Yeah, it is possible that it was just some random glitch/issue, but after 2.5 years it doesn't hurt to check under the hood and make sure everything is as it should be anyway (and regularly replacing your thermal paste is always a good idea; once every year or two is generally adequate to ensure good cooling).

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There should be a temperature listed for Ring; it just might be in a different section, or you may have to enable showing it in HWInfo's options.

Unfortunately, long term overclocking can potentially degrade hardware over time.  Some components of motherboards (such as VRMs) and CPUs (such as IMC's (Integrated Memory Controllers) can become less stable and less capable of overclocking over time, generally due to damage from heat.  It means that you can be overclocking a system for years, then one day it loses its stability and the only way to get the system working properly again is to dial the overclock back, just as you said.  Frankly, most overclocking has a minimal impact on performance anyway.  Obviously you don't want to leave any untapped potential performance on the table, but you also don't want to push your hardware so far that it risks damage either.

In recent years I've done most of my overclocking on laptops, so I generally overclock the multipliers as much as I can while simultaneously undervolting the CPU to reduce heat, and on better silicon it has worked out quite well (I have a 7700K that I can undervolt to around -120mv on both the core voltage and the ring/uncore voltage, yet I keep all 4 cores locked to 4.6GHz and the ring multiplier at around 4.3GHz and it would run cool as a cucumber yet very vast, but that was pretty much a silicon lottery winner as most chips aren't capable of that).

Anyway, if dialing back the overclocks gets the system stable, then you know the source of the instability must be the overclocks.  My guess is that over time, some component on the motherboard probably degraded to some extent so that now it is no longer capable of running stable with the overclocks you had in place for so long.  It may have been something that was building up over time over the past two years, or it could have been a single recent event where some game or other demanding application on the system pushed the voltages and temps just a bit too high, finally pushing that component to its breaking point.  Or it simply could have been just natural degredation over time due to a slightly faulty or just less durable component on the board from the factory.

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