I'm was having a similar issue. I could run a scan in safe mode no problem, came up with zero errors. In normal boot it would BSOD during the file system scan. Win 10 latest updates.
The reasons are all over the map.
Bugcheck code: 0xA (0x5, 0xC, 0x0, 0xFFFFF801AD4E590C)
Bugcheck code: 0x7F (0x8, 0xFFFFC280B7981B30, 0xFFFFB907C1633A21, 0xFFFFF8034CF9F6C0)
Bugcheck code: 0x139 (0x4, 0xFFFFF803BA2DF840, 0xFFFFF803BA2DF798, 0x0)
I was also having BSODs during playing games. Some games exhibiting the problem more than others. My notebook has an i7 7700K and GTX 1080, Win 10 Pro. http://www.hidevolution.com/evoc-16l-g-1080-custom-built-gaming-desktop-replacement-laptop.html
The reason I installed MBAM was to check to see if I had malware or a rootkit by some chance.
I started trying to isolate what the problem could be by testing and changing things one at a time (typical debugging 101..). The whole problem turned out to be the latest Intel drivers for my 8265 WiFi adapter. Recalled installing those sometime in the last month or so. I uninstalled them and just let Win 10 use the ones that are in it's own driver package.
My gaming BSODs are gone (one game in particular would BSOD every 10-15 minutes, it's lasted over an hour now) and I can now get through multiple MBAM scan runs with no issue as well.
Beware the latest 8265 WiFi drivers in Intel's download section, YMMV on those, mine did.